(1) i’m definitely not HIV-infected; (2) i do believe that i will be maybe not HIV-infected; (3) i actually do maybe not know; (4) i believe i might be HIV-infected; (5) i am aware for certain that i will be HIV-infected. We categorised this into HIV-negative (1,2), unknown (3), and HIV-positive (4,5) status. The questionnaire enquired in regards to the HIV status of every intercourse partner utilizing the relevant question: ‘Do you understand whether this partner is HIV-infected? ’ with comparable solution options as above. Perceived concordance in HIV status within partnerships ended up being categorised because; (1) concordant; (2) discordant; (3) unknown. The category that is last all partnerships in which the participant would not understand his very own status, or even the status of their partner, or both. In this research the HIV status for the participant is self-reported and self-perceived. The HIV status associated with the partner that is sexual as observed by the participant.
To be able to explore feasible disclosure of HIV status we additionally asked the participant whether or not the casual intercourse partner knew the HIV status of this participant, with all the response choices: (1) no, (2) possibly, (3) yes. Intimate behavior with every partner ended up being dichotomised as: (1) no anal sex or only safeguarded rectal intercourse, and (2) unprotected intercourse that is anal. To look for the subculture, we asked whether or not the participant characterised himself or their lovers as owned by more than one associated with subcultures/lifestyles that are following casual, formal, alternate, drag, leather-based, army, recreations, trendy, punk/skinhead, rubber/lycra, gothic, bear, jeans, skater, or, if none among these faculties had been relevant, other. Concordant lifestyle was categorised as: (1) concordant; (2) discordant. Casual partner kind had been categorised by the individuals into (1) known traceable and (2) anonymous partners.
We compared characteristics of individuals by self-reported HIV status (using ?2-tests for dichotomous and categorical factors and rank that is using test for constant factors). We compared characteristics of individuals, lovers, and partnership intimate behaviour by online or offline partnership, and determined P values according to logistic regression with robust standard errors, accounting for correlated information. Constant factors (for example., age, wide range of intercourse lovers) are reported as medians with an interquartile range (IQR), and had been categorised for addition in multivariate models. Random results logistic regression models had been utilized to look at the relationship between dating location (online versus offline) and UAI. Likelihood ratio tests had been utilized to evaluate the value of the adjustable in a model.
Before the analyses we create an acyclic that is directed (DAG) representing a causal style of UAI. Some variables were putative causes (self-reported HIV status; online partner acquisition), others were considered as confounders (participants’ age, participants’ ethnicity, and no. Of male sex partners in preceding 6 months), and some were assumed to be on the causal pathway between the main exposure of interest and outcome (age difference between participant and partner; ethnic concordance; concordance in life styles; HIV concordance; partnership type; sex frequency within partnership; group sex with partner; sex-related substance use in partnership) in this model.
To be able to examine the feasible mediating impact of more info on lovers (including sensed HIV status) on UAI, we developed three multivariable models. In model 1, we adjusted the relationship between online/offline dating location and UAI for traits associated with the participant: age, ethnicity, quantity of intercourse lovers when you look at the preceding half a year, and HIV status that is self-perceived. In model 2 we included the partnership faculties (age distinction, cultural concordance, life style concordance, and HIV concordance). In model 3, we adjusted also for partnership risk that is sexual (i.e., sex-related medication usage and intercourse regularity) and partnership kind (in other terms., casual or anonymous). Once we assumed a differential aftereffect of dating location for HIV-positive, HIV-negative and HIV status unknown MSM, an interaction between HIV status for the participant and location that is dating incorporated into all three models by simply making a brand new six-category adjustable. For clarity, the outcomes of online/offline dating on UAI will also be presented individually for HIV-negative, HIV-positive, and men that are HIV-unaware. We performed a sensitivity analysis limited to partnerships for which just one sexual contact happened. Statistical significance had been thought as P
Research participants and partnerships
For the 3050 MSM whom took part in the research, 2119 guys reported one or more casual intercourse partner in the earlier six months. As a whole, they reported 5278 casual intercourse lovers. The present analysis had been limited to guys whom reported at the very least one online casual sex partner as well as minimum one offline casual partner; this concerned 577 guys with 1781 casual lovers: 878 online lovers and 903 offline lovers.